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The glue between authentication methods [eg one-time pwds, kerberos, smart cards] and applications requiring authentication services [eg. ftpd, sshd, imapd] etc It is another layer on 1st-Level defense in Linux. Please note these notes are based on CentOS/RHEL 5

- What is PAM ?
 The glue between authentication methods [eg one-time pwds, kerberos, smart cards] and applications requiring authentication services [eg. ftpd, sshd, imapd] etc
It is another layer on 1st-Level defense in Linux.


- The 4 directories we are concerned with:
/lib/libpam*      [3 files & 3 symlinks]     PAM System Libs
/lib/security/.so [60 files]    PAM Loadable Modules [PLM]
/etc/pam.d/       [94 files]
/etc/security/    [ 16 .conf files and some other files/dirs]


=================================================================================


/etc/pam.d/  - The PAM Config Files



- All configuration files of PAM are located in /etc/pam.d.
- All are ASCI text files. That means you can open it in VIM, EMACs etc.
- Format of files:
Inside all files, you will see below kind of format.



module-type    control-flag    module-path            Arguments
auth                required        pam_securetty.so     debug


Default module-path is /lib/security so no path is mentioned above.
 
A. module-type



i. auth : Serves 2 functions - first authenticating users to be who they claim to be, and
second allowing other privileges to be granted to the users
ii. account: Provides account-management options not related to authentication.
Typically used to restrict based on factors such as origin [eg only non-root users allow remote login, or time of day]
iii. password: Called only when updating the auth token associated with the User
iv. session: Tasks to be performed before/after the user is allowed access.


B. control-flag



flag                                            Description
required                                      Compulsory to succeed. If it does not, executing of other
                                                  modules of the same module-type still continues


requisite                                      Similar to required. Compulsory to succeed. However, in the case of failure,
                                                  control is passed straight back to the app, rather than other modules being executed


sufficient                                     If a module with the control flag sufficient succeeds, no further modules
                                                  of the same module-type are called and the entire module-type succeeds
                                                  PROVIDED all other modules before it have succeeded - in the same module
                                                  type, of course


optional                                       Success of this module is optional, success or failure is irrelevant


 
C. module-path
Default module-path is /lib/security so no path is mentioned above.



D. Arguments



debug  : Log debug info using syslog
no_warn  : Suppress warning messages
use_first_pass  : If a password has been previously entered, use it and do not
prompt user another time
try_first_pass : Auth should be tried with the previously entered password. If a
password was not entered or is invalid, the user is prompted
for a password
expose_account : By default, PAM attempt to hide a/c info like user's full name
or default shell [a cracker could use this] This argument allows
such info to be displayed, making for a more friendly login
experience [eg "Pl enter your password, <UserName>), but
should be used in a secure environment
nullok  : If you remove the 'x' in /etc/passwd, a user can login w/o a
password. That is because of this. Remove nullok and it will not allow
retry=N  : The default number of times this module will request a new                 
password (for strength-checking) from the user is 1.
Using this argument this can be increased to N
This happens when you are changing the passwd from the CLI
and not when you are logging in, obviously!
type=  : The default action is for the module to use the following prompts when requesting passwords:
              "New UNIX password: '' and ``Retype UNIX password: ''.
                  Using this option you can replace the word UNIX with XXX


1. Authentication by PAM:


When we log in, what does /bin/login binary do?


1. Accepts Username & Password
2. Loads the 2 PAM libs into the RAM
Please check


$ ldd /bin/login
        linux-gate.so.1 =>  (0x00d12000)
        libcrypt.so.1 => /lib/libcrypt.so.1 (0x04b3f000)
        libpam.so.0 => /lib/libpam.so.0 (0x04147000)
        libpam_misc.so.0 => /lib/libpam_misc.so.0 (0x009d3000)
        libaudit.so.0 => /lib/libaudit.so.0 (0x00cf6000)
        ..
3. Hands over this Username & Password to these libs
4. Then instructs the libs to loads login's PAM config file -/etc/pam.d/login
[The PAM config file of the login* service which is by the same name i.e. /etc/pam.d/login]
5. Hands over control to the PAM libs
6. PAM System Libs start processing the file /etc/pam.d/login
7. libpam loads and unloads the Modules as given in the config (/etc/pam.d/login) file


 


Inside of /etc/pam.d/login



auth [user_unknown=ignore success=ok ignore=ignore default=bad] pam_securetty.so
auth          include       system-auth
account     required     pam_nologin.so
account     include       system-auth
password  include       system-auth
# pam_selinux.so close should be the first session rule
session     required     pam_selinux.so close
session     include       system-auth
session     required     pam_loginuid.so
session     optional      pam_console.so
# pam_selinux.so open should only be followed by sessions to be executed in the user context
session     required     pam_selinux.so open
session     optional      pam_keyinit.so force revoke
session     sufficient    /lib/security/pam_lsass.so


8. It checks first line of /etc/pam.d/login



auth [user_unknown=ignore success=ok ignore=ignore default=bad] pam_securetty.so


I will simplify it to understand
auth         required        pam_securetty.so


Here, module-type is auth, control flag is required that means if this case fails then, user wont be able to login. Here module-argument is pam_security.so. pam_security.so reads /etc/securetty.


/etc/securetty is ASCII Text file. List of Terminals is mentioned here.
vc/1
vc/2
vc/3
vc/4
tty1
tty2
tty3
tty4

So if user is attempting login from any of the terminal listed in /etc/securetty, User is allowed to login.


For eg. If I want to disable login for tty4 then, simply I will delete tty4 from /etc/securetty.


9. After Success on first line, it will go to second line



auth        include      system-auth


Here control-flag is include and argument is system-auth that means, it includes /etc/pam.d/system-auth file and credentials will be passed to it.



Inside of /etc/pam.d/system-auth



auth        required      pam_env.so
auth        sufficient    pam_unix.so nullok try_first_pass
auth        requisite     pam_succeed_if.so uid >= 500 quiet
auth        required      pam_deny.so


account     required      pam_unix.so
account     sufficient    pam_localuser.so
account     sufficient    pam_succeed_if.so uid < 500 quiet
account     required      pam_permit.so


password    requisite     pam_cracklib.so try_first_pass retry=3
password    sufficient    pam_unix.so md5 shadow nullok try_first_pass use_authtok
password    required      pam_deny.so


session     required      pam_limits.so
session     required      pam_unix.so



a. First line will get challenge.



auth        required      pam_env.so


pam_env.so read /etc/security/pam_env.conf file. Default variables can be set in this file.


For eg. If I want Variable MYNAME to be set to NEELESH after login then I can enter below line in /etc/security/pam_env.conf


MYNAME          DEFAULT=local       OVERRIDE=NEELESH
Or MYNAME  DEFAULT=NEELESH


Now log in to the system and try echo $MYNAME


b. Credentials are passed on to second line



auth         sufficient     pam_unix.so  nullok try_first_pass


Module pam_unix.so does actual work of Authentication.


It checks Username & Password from /etc/passwd & /etc/shadow and if both are ok then goes to next line.



In above line
nullok:  username with No password can also login. If you remove nullok, then it wont allow blank passwords.


try_first_pass : If the Authentication fails or no password has been entered, the user is prompted for another password.
If you use use_first_pass instead of try_first_pass then user is not prompted for another password.
 
Control Flag for this line is sufficient, that means if pam_unix.so challenge gets success result
then, it will allow to login and it will not go to next lines from auth module type.


Here Authentication will be successful but still Authorization is yet to be processed.


c. If credentials provided are incorrect then, pam_unix.so challenge will fail and then credentials will pass to next line.



auth        requisite     pam_succeed_if.so uid >= 500 quiet


This line is added by authconfig on Fedora and RHEL systems. It is not much useful (but harmless) unless there are additional network-based authentication modules after them. There can be pam_ldap, pam_sss, pam_krb5 etc. These provide authentication against network servers and it is common requirement that the system accounts (uid<500) should not be authenticated against the network servers.


To understand this you will need to comment next line of pam_deny.so.
After commenting it just try to login with any user other than root, and uid must be greater than or equal to 500 with any words or character as password. It will allow that user. But same time it wont allow root to login. If you want root also should be login with any password, then just change uid >= 0.


d. auth        required      pam_deny.so



 pam_deny is used to deny access.


Here Authentication process gets ended.


Flowchart of Authentication Process inside PAM


2. User Account Validation by PAM



10. After system-auth next line of /etc/pam.d/login will get processed.




account    required     pam_nologin.so


Module-type is account & control flag is required. That means this challenge should be Pass.


pam_nologin.so checks /etc/nologin, if it exists and user is not root then user is not permitted to login.


If /etc/nologin is not there then it process to next line.


11. account    include      system-auth



Here again system-auth file is included but the module-type is different. Module-type is account.


So it will go to first line of account section in system-auth file. i.e.



account     required      pam_unix.so


It again calls pam_unix.so module.  Here it checks weather the account is Active or not.


Try this ->



- Create a test user.
- In /etc/shadow change add 2 in 8th field.
test:$1$BHebdtAA$ipp6LuWWQvYqloQGsDHIf/:15026:0:99999:7::2:


This means Account is expired
- Now try login with test account. It will show Your account is expired.
- Comment account     required      pam_unix.so in /etc/pam.d/system-auth
- Now try login with same account. You will be able to login.


12. If account is active, then above challenge will get pass and next line will get process.




account     sufficient    pam_localuser.so


It will check if account is local or remote. If it is local, then it will not run next challenges from account module-type. This module reads /etc/passwd file to check local account.


13. pam_permit




account     required      pam_permit.so


This line will only allow access. Pam_permit.so should be use very carefully.



3. Validating Session:



In /etc/pam.d/login, minimum below line is required for validating session.



session    include      system-auth


It include system-auth here. And in system-auth file below lines are required:



session     required      pam_limits.so
session     required      pam_unix.so


pam_limits.so applies limits from /etc/security/limits.conf.
pam_unix.so logs the username and the service type to /var/log/messages at the beginning and end of each session


4. Updating password:



When user or root changes his or users password, Module-type password comes into picture.


When a user change password, it ask for current password first. After validating current password, it ask for New Password.


a. When user enter New Password it goes to



 password    requisite     pam_cracklib.so try_first_pass retry=3


pam_cracklib.so checks strength of password. And retry=3 will give only 3 chance to type New Password.
After 3 chance it will get automatically exit, throwing error on screen.


b. After giving proper new password, it will process following line



password  sufficient pam_unix.so  md5  shadow  nullok  try_first_pass  use_authtok


=====================================================================================


Why root never ask password when he does su - <username> ?


Login as root


$ su foo


root is never asked for a password when she su's to another user, Why?


Ans: Because you are root?    Wrong!


$ ldd `which su`
     libpam.so.0 => /lib/libpam.so.0 (0x40034000)  <------- su* is PAM-aware
libpam_misc.so.0 => /lib/libpam_misc.so.0 (0x4003c000)
       .....


The su* binary is PAM-aware!
Hence su* has to have a PAM config file in /etc/pam.d/ to consult for authentication.
Now, the config file name is the same as the service name [su*] hence su* consults this file /etc/pam.d/su



#%PAM-1.0
auth       sufficient  pam_rootok.so
# Uncomment the following line to implicitly trust users in the "wheel" group.
#auth       sufficient    pam_wheel.so trust use_uid
.......
.......


Now try this:
   * Change sufficient in Line 1 to required or comment that line.


Login as root
 
# su - foo


And u will be asked for the password even if you are root.



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