The bass in all my music sounds bad (like a thudding speaker malfunction, not very musical) no matter which player I use. I've tried fiddling with equalizers, but that doesn't seem to help; it just makes the base louder or softer. The rest of the music sounds fine.

I mainly use Pragha to play music. I've tried switching the audio sink to oss, but I get the error "Could not open audio device for playback" despite my having installed alsa-oss. I've also tried switching the sink to "pulse" (presumably pulseaudio) but I get the error "Your GStreamer installation is missing a plug-in." I have the base, good, bad, and ugly plugins (and pulseaudio and pulseaudio-alsa) installed.

I don't know what's causing this, but I noticed it almost immediately after I upgraded to Debian 9. I'm now using Hyperbola (Arch-based), which I installed on my laptop's other partition after the Debian upgrade, and the problem persists.

What do I need to configure to change the bass? How can I figure out whether the problem is my hardware?